By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Offers an outline of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its courting to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal issues and applicable diagnostic tools and remedy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 used to be re-organized into 3 components. Separate chapters are actually dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the newest imaging concepts and choroidal element. chosen healing issues comprise laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon crowning glory of part 12, readers can be capable to:
Select acceptable tools of exam and ancillary experiences for the analysis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the foundations of clinical and surgical operation of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate info from significant potential medical trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal problems
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous PDF
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Additional info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
A, The red-free, black-andwhite photograph of the right macula reveals a well-demarcated serous detachment of the sensory retina (arrows). B, Early transit frame of the angiogram reveals the pinpoint focus of hyperfluorescence, indicating early fluorescein leakage (arrow) through the RPE, nasal to the foveal avascular zone. C, A late-venous-phase frame of the angiogram reveals increasing fluorescence from continuing leakage. D, A later frame of the angiogram demonstrates pooling of fluorescein in a pigment epithelial detachment.
Retinal capillary loss or vascular insufficiency causes abnormalities of the b-wave and oscillatory potentials, such as a delay in the implicit time or a reduction of amplitude (Fig 3-7). Normally, the b-wave is larger in amplitude than the a-wave, and inversion of the b-wave:a-wave ratio or a delay in the 30-Hz cone flicker response is a potentially ominous sign in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion. The ERG may aid in the detection of certain hereditary diseases in affected family members as well.
The ERP has been used primarily in research settings to measure visual-pigment bleaching and regeneration. The c-wave is a late positive response occurring 2-4 seconds after the stimulus and is generated by the RPE. It is discussed later in this chapter in conjunction with other RPE responses. Focal and multifocal ERG testing It is possible to stimulate only the foveal or the parafoveal cones while presenting a bright light on the rest of the retina to suppress the rod system and prevent interference.
2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD