This crucial center English textbook, now in its 3rd version, introduces scholars to the big variety of literature written in England among 1150 and 1400.
New, completely revised version of this crucial heart English textbook.
Introduces the language of the time, giving information on pronunciation, spelling, grammar, metre, vocabulary and neighborhood dialects.
Now comprises extracts from ‘Pearl’ and Chaucer’s ‘Troilus and Criseyde’.
Bibliographic references were up-to-date throughout.
Each textual content is observed via specified notes.
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Additional resources for A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)
3), the dative became indistinguishable from other cases without inﬂexion. The dative was used for the indirect object: hi hadden him manred maked, ‘they had done him homage’, 1/11. Without a distinct form for the dative, however, the indirect object had to be distinguished from the direct object by word-order or the use of to, as it is in Modern English: seist me boKe tone and schame, ‘say to me both insult and shame’, 2/50; 4eve hem benes, ‘give them beans’, 7b/177. Some adjectives, such as loK and lef, have a dative object: loK smale fo4le, ‘hateful to small birds’, 2/277; lof him were ni4tingale, ‘nightingales were dear to him’, 2/203.
Sing. nom. ho or scho acc. & dat. hir or her gen. 6 The Deﬁnite Article The deﬁnite article ‘the’ had in Old English no fewer than ten different forms depending on gender, case and number, but these distinctions could not survive the decay of the system of noun inﬂexions, with the result that there remained only the indeclinable form Ke (or in some dialects te following -d/-t, as in and te, at te). Je is the invariable form in all texts in this book except in two early works from the South and South-West Midlands (texts 2 and 3).
1 Introduction The blurring of vowels in unstressed syllables had consequences that may clearly be seen in the noun inﬂexions. The system in Old English was complex, with differentiation possible between gender, case, and strong and weak classes. So the nominative plural of nouns might be marked by -as, -u, -a, -e, -an or no ending at all, and other endings distinguished one case from another. With the falling together of unstressed vowels, the whole variety of inﬂexional endings was reduced to -e, -es, -en and -ene.
A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)