By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical facts mentioned during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accumulated in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language used to be in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to assemble information on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a learn assistant at the college of Chicago's Chiapas
Study tasks, directed through McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and in other places in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, often within the type of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern incorporated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who used to be later to turn into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the venture wound down, I again to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate reviews in
Anthropology on the collage of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas undertaking fabrics in McQuown's files, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the following educational yr I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had amassed and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safeguard schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. via the end
of August I had gotten smaller an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we all started paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days every week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco might cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We started by means of reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my mistakes of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. while Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). over the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey record (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed by means of Kaufman for the Chicago initiatives, took good thing about the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in response to every one. One benefit of this method is that it elicits
vocabulary that may another way no longer happen to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic kinds in addition to hardly ever heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to checklist narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated via me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i'd pass over the transcriptions and ask questions on the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric accrued by means of those ideas used to be wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to gather vegetation within the Cuchumatanes, together with specifically the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been large cloud woodland. We amassed for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis amassed the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so forth. and feedback at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical type (in phrases of the kinds 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in response to my box notes we accrued 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those information went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that ebook are included during this dictionary.
In may well of 1965 Francisco and that i conducted a two-week dialect survey of the world in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj used to be spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town middle, a complete of 27 questionnaires. numerous texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric was once incorporated
into my lexical documents. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accrued extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The selection of plant names encouraged me to gather animal names besides, and to take
notes on their local class. Absent box paintings at the undertaking, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. a number of the names were amassed throughout the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the technique of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj process of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went in the course of the lexical records and extra the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had got the topographical maps for the area of
Huehuetenango (Dirección normal de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position by means of position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish types (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost necessarily transcribed Ix-). i eventually dropped at the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected checklist, for what that used to be worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names was once later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and the entire position names
were additional to my lexical records. The Spanish position names stated listed below are the legitimate names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección basic de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate scholar in Geology from LSU was once dwelling in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out the various rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his research and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by means of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about additional tasks. With Francisco's support, they accumulated close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj quarter, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a few comparative examine of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to bring together and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to put in writing up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to examine the grammars. simply the grammatical research reached booklet (Hopkins 1970).
However, all of the details I had generated concerning the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I lower back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a role educating Anthropology on the collage of Texas
in Austin, and persevered to technique my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she have been instructing, after which again to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in prefer of box education and learn on languages toward Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had all started to stick to the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj till 2005-6, whilst I got a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the USA (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box photographs, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in sleek useful orthography, will entire this
The assortment comprises all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements mentioned right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil conflict (Manz 1988:83-89). it's my purpose so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric in addition, together with huge notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely to be had to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary may be further to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched on account that approximately 1970. Over the following few months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now reliable Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include all of the facts on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Extra info for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
A sowing-bag full, 1/4 of a chim. The content of a sowing bag, about 2 feet on each side. Ex: jun 'ap'jal, one sowing-bag full, cha 'ap'jal, two sowing-bags full, 10 'ox 'ap'jal, three sowing-bags full; yap'jal, his sowing bag; yap'jalil 'ixim, a bag for corn. 'ap'ak, n (winh). Day name, "hora" in the pagan system of divination by day names. Corresponds to Chicchan in the Yucatecan system of day names. 'ap'ap'ih, adj. , food without salt, or a "lima" fruit. 'ap'p'ih, vin. To become bland-tasting.
Ex: xcha', his grinding stone. *xcha'il. cha', n (k'en). The molars (teeth). Ex: xcha', his molar. xcha'il yeh, the molar in his denture. cha', num. Two. , nhap', ja', yup', mek', k'atanh, chim, 'ajp'al, wotz, p'ech, ch'up', lochwel, yuch. See also cha'ap' and chap'. cha'el, num phrase. Twice. cha chonh, n phrase. Resale, as when buying something cheap and then reselling it for profit. cha jaj, n. Windpipe, literally, "second throat" (versus the esophagus). Ex: hin chajaj, My windpipe! (Something went down the wrong way).
Plant name. " Musa paradisiaca. chak k'anxul, n ('anh). Plant name. " Foot 2-3" long, small top about 1" across, tan colored. Fried with eggs and lard. , among pine stands. One of the two k'anxul mushrooms. See also manselin. chak k'enal, n (lum). Place name: Fincas north of San Mateo; one is niwan chak k'enal, the other yune chak k'enal, known otherwise as Chaquenal Grande and Chaquenalito. chak k'ojyem, n ('anh). Plant name. A kind of bush bean with red pods at maturity, red beans. = chak k'ox tut.
A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE by Nicholas A. Hopkins