By J. Craig Robertson (auth.)
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Additional resources for A Guide to Radiation Protection
A dose can be read directly as it is accumulated by viewing the deflection produced in a quartz fibre. The deflection is produced as a result of ionization of the gas in the dosimeter by gamma- or x-radiation. The scale is marked in roentgen since the quantity being measured is the ionization in air by gammaand x-radiation. The dosimeters are available with sensitivities ranging from 200 mR to thousands of roentgen. Clearly as indicators of whole body dose, all the personnel monitoring systems are to some extent limited since beams of radiation which do not pass through the monitors would not be recorded.
Thus dose equivalent (rem) is obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose in rads by the appropriate quality factor. 1. P. 1 Type of radiation Use of quality factors Quality factor Energy of radiation 2·5 10 All energies. For very low energy (J particles with energy not greater than 0·03 MeV the QF is increased to I · 7 Energy less than 0·01 MeV All energies of alpha particles X-rays, y-rays, (J particles Slow neutrons Fast neutrons, alpha particles Let us see how the rem is used in any given situation.
It is used with gamma- or x-radiation only. The roentgen was originally defined to be the quantity of gamma- or x-radiation which produces a specified quantity of ionization in air. The quantity of ionization produced by the radiation can be measured in a special instrument called an ionization chamber. The modem usage of the roentgen, however, is as the unit of exposure where exposure is the quantity used in expressing the amount of ionization produced in air by gamma- or x-radiation. Thus an exposure of 10 R implies more gamma-rays or x-radiation than an exposure of 1 R.
A Guide to Radiation Protection by J. Craig Robertson (auth.)