By Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb
This is often an important publication for researchers in electrochemistry; it covers components of either primary and functional significance, with reports of top of the range. the fabric is especially good awarded and the alternative of themes displays a balanced editorial coverage that's welcomed.
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Extra info for Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8
6d. In the case of ideal RC elements, a non-linear least-square ﬁt  would still allow an exact determination of all R- and C-values. g. a non-ideal semicircle is due to di¤erent transport mechanisms involved, spatially varying relaxation frequencies of one and the same process, or other nonidealities, such as frequency-dependent current lines [212, 214, 216] or frequencydependent conductivities [217–220]. If only two semicircles are measured, and it is not obvious whether the second arc is due to electrodes or grain boundaries, the corresponding capacitance value gives at least a hint: since in polycrystalline samples usually numerous grain boundary planes are in series while only two electrodes are present, Cel can be expected to be much larger than Cgb .
Fig. 20b gives the numerically calculated relationship between the ratio Rspr =R ongb on the one hand (R ongb ¼ resistance measured with a microelectrode on a grain boundary) and the normalized grain boundary conductance Y~gb =Rspr À1 on the other hand. The spreading resistance can satisfactorily be approximated by the resistance measured with a microcontact on a grain Rongrain . Thus, for a given Lg =d me ratio the measured resistance ratio Rongrain =R ongb (ARspr =R ongb ) can be unambiguously related to Y~gb =Rspr À1 and the 44 Ju¨rgen Fleig Fig.
G. di¤erent impurity levels) can cause di¤erences even without any highly conductive boundaries. One might also compare samples with di¤erent grain sizes, since they should lead to di¤erent e¤ective conductivities if grain boundaries are highly conductive (Eq. (30)). However, grain size variations are usually achieved by di¤erent preparation conditions, and hence also other factors such as impurity segregation  or density can vary and impede a quantitative analysis. A very powerful technique to detect and to quantitatively characterize solids with highly conductive grain boundaries makes use of microelectrodes and is introduced in Sec.
Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8 by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb