Download PDF by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb: Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8

By Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb

ISBN-10: 3527302115

ISBN-13: 9783527302116

This is often an important publication for researchers in electrochemistry; it covers components of either primary and functional significance, with reports of top of the range. the fabric is especially good awarded and the alternative of themes displays a balanced editorial coverage that's welcomed.

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Extra info for Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8

Example text

6d. In the case of ideal RC elements, a non-linear least-square fit [215] would still allow an exact determination of all R- and C-values. g. a non-ideal semicircle is due to di¤erent transport mechanisms involved, spatially varying relaxation frequencies of one and the same process, or other nonidealities, such as frequency-dependent current lines [212, 214, 216] or frequencydependent conductivities [217–220]. If only two semicircles are measured, and it is not obvious whether the second arc is due to electrodes or grain boundaries, the corresponding capacitance value gives at least a hint: since in polycrystalline samples usually numerous grain boundary planes are in series while only two electrodes are present, Cel can be expected to be much larger than Cgb .

Fig. 20b gives the numerically calculated relationship between the ratio Rspr =R ongb on the one hand (R ongb ¼ resistance measured with a microelectrode on a grain boundary) and the normalized grain boundary conductance Y~gb =Rspr À1 on the other hand. The spreading resistance can satisfactorily be approximated by the resistance measured with a microcontact on a grain Rongrain . Thus, for a given Lg =d me ratio the measured resistance ratio Rongrain =R ongb (ARspr =R ongb ) can be unambiguously related to Y~gb =Rspr À1 and the 44 Ju¨rgen Fleig Fig.

G. di¤erent impurity levels) can cause di¤erences even without any highly conductive boundaries. One might also compare samples with di¤erent grain sizes, since they should lead to di¤erent e¤ective conductivities if grain boundaries are highly conductive (Eq. (30)). However, grain size variations are usually achieved by di¤erent preparation conditions, and hence also other factors such as impurity segregation [128] or density can vary and impede a quantitative analysis. A very powerful technique to detect and to quantitatively characterize solids with highly conductive grain boundaries makes use of microelectrodes and is introduced in Sec.

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Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8 by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb

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