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Automatically had allowed the Southern states to add a dozen more congressional seats, since the entire black population would then be counted for representation. The old agreement had been that slaves would only be counted on the basis of three-fifths for representation. In other words, a black individual did not count as one person, but rather as three-fifths of one person. Even after the end of the Civil War, freedmen did not yet have the vote, but more white Southerners were sitting in Congress.

47 48 Reconstruction There were other situations and places where blacks gained access to land, as well. Some attempts to put land in the hands of former slaves failed. In 1864, the radical Republican congressman George W. Julian introduced a bill that extended the 1862 Homestead Act to include abandoned and confiscated Southern lands. Julian’s proposal would have offered former slaves plots of land of 40 and 80 acres (16 to 32 ha). The proposal proved too much for many congressmen, and the bill was defeated.

The committee intended to lay down its own guidelines for allowing Southern states back into the Union. The committee was soon investigating Southern abuse against freedmen. To fix the problem, congressmen took two significant steps: By late winter of 1866, Lyman Trumball, a moderate senator from Illinois, introduced a pair of bills designed to provide support for newly freed blacks. One was a money bill to provide more financial support for the Freedmen’s Bureau, while extending congressional power to protect the rights of blacks across the South.

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An introduction to homotopy theory via groupoids and universal constructions by Philip R Heath


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