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5 ... 1 ... : 1 1 ... frame’: 50 obs. 6 5 ... 4 ... 4 ... 3 ... : 1 1 ... frame’: 50 obs. 9 ... 4 ... 3 ... 6 1 ... : 2 2 ... frame’: 50 obs. 3 ... 5 ... 3 ... 8 ... : 3 3 ... The split method builds a list of data frames named by the level of the factor on which the original data frame was split. Here the original 34 150 observations have been split into three lists of 50, one for each species. Length) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. 10 Max. 90 Simultaneous operations on subsets We often want to apply some computation to all subsets of a data frame.

It is informative but not so attractive. We can customize the plotting symbol (pch argument), its colour and size (col and cex arguments), the axis labels (xlab and ylab arguments), and graph title (main argument). g. "*" for an asterisk) or an integer code for one of a set of graphics symbols. Figure 3 shows the symbols and their codes. Note that symbols 21–26 also have a fill (background) colour, specified by the bg argument; the main colour specified by the col argument specifies the border.

Frame’: 31 obs. 8 11 11 ... $ Height: num 70 65 63 72 81 83 66 75 80 75 ... 6 ... > summary(trees$Volume) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. 0 As the example shows, some methods (like summary()) can deal with NA’s, but others can’t. frame’: 30 obs. 8 11 11 ... $ Height: num 65 63 72 81 83 66 75 80 75 79 ... 6 ... The first observation, with the missing volume, was removed. 24 Control structures and looping S is a powerful programming language with Algol-like syntax25 and control structures. Single statements may be grouped between the braces { and }, separated either by new lines or the command separator ;.

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Introduction to the R Project for Statistical Computing by Rossiter

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